CLR (Common Language Runtime) in Net Framework, Is one of the most important component in .net framework architecture, we can say CLR is the heart of.Net Framework.
Common Language Runtime known as CLR is a run-time environment in .Net Framework.
CLR runs the MSIL code and convert that to native machine code.
Here is the process of how CLR works
Basically CLR runtime engine provide a set of Services.
Read manifest of application, differentiate private and shared assembly those are required for application execution, then send request to assembly loader.
Based on assembly resolver intstructions, Assembly Loader load all assemblies into applicaiton process.
Type checker confirm that all types used in the assemblies as per standard of CTS or CLS, thus provide type safety.
Marshal Classes reside under System.Runtime.InteropServices, this provides objects interoperability.
Thread support provide mechanism that multiple thread can run at the same time.
Converts IL code into operating native code.
Manage memory using Garbage collector , make sure unused instances are disposed after some certain time and release the memory, thus improve performance.